If you find it hard to understand Abstraction and Encapsulation, do not worry as I have covered these topics in detail with examples in the next section of this guide.

  1. Abstraction
  2. Encapsulation
  3. Message passing

Abstraction: Abstraction is a process where you show only “relevant” data and “hide” unnecessary details of an object from the user.

Encapsulation: Encapsulation simply means binding object state(fields) and behaviour(methods) together. If you are creating class, you are doing encapsulation.

Message passing
A single object by itself may not be very useful. An application contains many objects. One object interacts with another object by invoking methods on that object. It is also referred to as Method Invocation.

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